Human Geography Session 03b/02b Map Analysis. SURVEY . Barron's AP Human Geography - Chapter 1. Using pre-defined aggregation regions has a number of advantages, including: easier compilation and mapping of the variable (especially in the age of GIS and the Internet with its many sources of data), recognizability of the districts, and the applicability of the information to further inquiry and policy tied to the individual districts. This shows the same data but by state rather than by county. Graduated or proportional symbol. 4. What is a mental map? (The fact that they're not accurate because they are 2-D and the world is 3-D) ... Choropleth Maps. Human Geography Session … a cartogram. It is likely that this was originally due to the greater simplicity of applying a limited set of tints; only in the age of computerized cartography have unclassed choropleth maps even been feasible, and until recently, they were still not easy to create in most mapping software. ASVP_Ale. Choropleth Maps shade areas of similar quantities on a map. A typical choropleth legend for a classed choropleth map includes a series of sample patches of the symbol for each class, with a text description of the corresponding range of values. Click on the County Choropleth map again to get a refresh image of it in your mind, and then click on the State Choropleth. TEST # 1: GEOGRAPHY—Its Nature and Perspectives. Simply put, a cartogram is a map. You can use a choropleth maps when your data are (1) attached to enumeration units (e.g., counties, provinces, countries), (2) standardized to show rates or ratios (never use choropleth with raw data/counts), and (3) you have a continuous statistical surface, in other words, you could conceptually measure the phenomena anywhere in space (n.b. Home Embed All AP Human Geography Resources . Choropleth maps provide an easy way to visualize how a variable varies across a geographic area or show the level of variability within a region. 52 terms. Choropleth maps are a type of thematic map which uses color variations (look at the map above) to express geographic variation from a certain theme. c. Physical Maps . ... the relationship between the length of an object on a map and that feature on the landscape. [12]:109[16][17] The primary argument in favor of classed choropleth maps is that it is easier for readers to process, due to the fewer number of distinct shades to recognize, which reduces cognitive load and allows them to precisely match the colors in the map to the values listed in the legend. An unclassed map (sometimes called n-class) directly assigns a color proportional to the value of each district. The technique works best when the geography of the variable has a high degree of spatial autocorrelation, so that there are large regions of similar colors with gradual changes between them; otherwise the map can look like a confusing mix of random colors. Property: aggregate statistical summaries. 25. Robinson, A.H., Morrison, J.L., Muehrke, P.C., Kimmerling, A.J. Every choropleth map has a strategy for mapping values to colors. Compiling all of the data from 51 different Excel spreadsheets was the bear here, but once everything was compiled, I used Piktochart’s nice map/charting feature to create a choropleth map that I easily inserted into the presentation. I. AP Geography Outline . AP Human Geography Multiple-choice Practice Questions: Key Human Geography Concepts. For example, a choropleth map of the population density of the Latino population in Texas visualizes a narrative about the spatial clustering and distribution of that group, while a map of the percent Latino visualizes a narrative of composition and predominance. an isoline map. [2]:158 Choropleth maps quickly gained popularity in several countries due to the increasing availability of demographic data compiled from national Censuses, starting with a series of choropleth maps published in the official reports of the 1841 Census of Ireland. The earliest known choropleth map was created in 1826 by Baron Pierre Charles Dupin, depicting the availability of basic education in France by department. Created by. There are several ways to classify data in a GIS. Each class may be represented by a single bar with its width determined by its minimum and maximum threshold values and its height calculated such that the box area is proportional to the number of districts included, then colored with the map symbol used for that class. I will need time to create a static version. How do geographers divide the world? 85 terms. ... INFOGRAPHIC: 2016 AP Human Geography Exam Breakdown. Write. Cartogram. A thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as average values per unit data. 9th grade. Difference between “Physical Geography” and “Human or Cultural Geography: a. Typically, it is accomplished by computing the ratio between two spatially extensive variables. [30], A choropleth map uses ad hoc symbols to represent the mapped variable. dot distribution. Thematic Map- A type of map that displays one or more variables-such as population, or income level-within a specific area. Ap Human Geography Africa Conflict Map: Excellent color choices, but use of choropleth method overstates the extent to which conflicts affect territories and populations. a topographic map. Broadly speaking, a choropleth map may represent two types of variables, a distinction common to physics and chemistry as well as Geostatistics and spatial analysis: Normalization is the technique of deriving a spatially intensive variable from one or more spatially extensive variables, so that it can be appropriately used in a choropleth map. Match. There are a variety of different approaches to this task, but the primary principle is that any order in the variable (e.g., low to high quantitative values) should be reflected in the perceived order of the colors (e.g., light to dark), as this will allow map readers to intuitively make "more vs. less" judgements and see trends and patterns with minimal reference to the legend. Much of the shaded areas are desert or otherwise unpopulated. Temperatures b. Topographic maps- elevations in land. Often the case, the map maker uses a type of data classification to produce its own unique choropleth map. Please wait. Data Classification; 2 Appropriateness of Data. xl10nx. On an unclassed choropleth map, it is common for the legend to show a smooth color gradient between the minimum and maximum values, with two or more points along it labeled with corresponding values.[12]:111. [2]:193, The term "choropleth map" was introduced in 1938 by the geographer John Kirtland Wright, and was in common usage among cartographers by the 1940s. The Choropleth is likely the most common type of thematic map because published statistical data (from government or other sources) is generally aggregated into well-known geographic units, such as countries, states, provinces, and counties, and thus they are relatively easy to create using GIS, spreadsheets, or other software tools. Thematic Cartography and Geovisualization, Third Edn, page 252. DEFINITION: A choropleth map is a map that uses colours/patterns to give specific information about demographics (population and people).A common example would be a map of a country with different colours showing different population densities. choropleth. [31] This form of legend shows not only the threshold values for each class, but gives some context for the source of those values, especially for endogenous classification rules that are based on the frequency distribution, such as quantiles. For instance, varying shades of a single color can be used to indicate the intensity of the factor happening in different regions of a large area. Thus, real-world patterns may not conform to the regional unit symbolized. [23], The most common types of color progressions used in choropleth (and other thematic) maps include:[24][25], It is possible to represent two (and sometimes three) variables simultaneously on a single choropleth map by representing each with a single-hue progression and blending the colors of each district. AP Human Geography DRAFT. A variety of types of classification rules have been developed for choropleth maps:[20] [12]:87. The article uses choropleth maps to highlight some of the biggest difference between East and West Berliners. [9]:331 They have been found to be more easily used if the map includes a carefully designed legend and an explanation of the technique. Contrasting but not complimentary colors are generally used, so that their combination is intuitively recognized as "between" the two original colors, such as red+blue=purple. [22] If differences in hue and/or saturation are incorporated, that limit increases significantly to as many as 10-12 classes. The need for color discrimination is further impacted by color vision deficiencies; for example, color schemes that use red and green to distinguish values will not be useful for a significant portion of the population. It is important to note that the level of measurement of the individual datum may be different than the aggregate summary statistic. Test. For example, a census may ask each individual for his or her "primary spoken language" (nominal), but this may be summarized over all of the individuals in a county as "percent primarily speaking Spanish" (ratio) or as "predominant primary language" (nominal). With our new school calendar shifted two weeks up, it seems like all of the end-of-the-year hoopla is compounded by two! Because calculated thresholds can often be at precise values that are not easily interpretable by map readers (e.g., $74,326.9734), it is common to create a modified classification rule by rounding threshold values to a similar simple number. 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